Bread appeared early in the Neolithic period, in the form of flattened cakes.

In lacustrine settings, it appears as early as the beginning of the 4th millenium, and fragments of carbonized bread have been found in several locations at Chalain and Clairvaux in settlements dating from the 31st century BCE.

Next slide
Previous slide

Flour and flat, winnowing basket.

Cooking bread on a heated stone.

Wooden spatula.

Clairvaux, La Motte-aux-Magnins, 30th century BCE.


  • Grind wheat using a large grinding stone. Winnow the crushed grains to separate the flour from the chaff.
  • Mix the flour thus obtained with water and a bit of last week's dough, using a wooden spatula until the dough is thoroughly mixed and springy to the touch.
  • Separate the dough into fist-sized balls and let them rise away from air currents.
  • Place the balls on (very hot) pre-heated stones. Bake them for several minutes on each side until the outside is crispy.