A culture that appeared in Western Europe after the Magdalenian, in around 12,500 BCE. It is known to have continued until 11,000 BCE, when open birch woodland, followed by pines, replaced the great steppes. Over the course of the years, reindeer disappeared from these latitudes and deer became the dominant prey species. Hunts became more planned and nomadic movements became more frequent. Items made from bone matter became rarer as flint knapping techniques become simpler. It is at this point that the animal artworks that were so typical of the recent European Palaeolithic, especially the Magdalenian, appeared. It appears that caves were no longer religious sanctuaries. A profound ideological revolution accompanied the transformation of lifestyles.