Amphorae were two-handled ceramic vases used in classical antiquity as containers for transporting by river and sea various goods, in particular wine, olive oil and various types of garum (fish sauce). Some amphorae, in particular those used for wine and garum, were made watertight by pouring liquid pitch into the container to coat the inside surface with an impermeable film. Amphorae were ubiquitous and often discarded once their contents had been consumed. Sometimes they were recycled as, for example, piping, hardcore or even as coffins for infants. Similar to all pottery, amphorae were fragile and broke easily; however the ceramic material itself is all but indestructible. Research into the evolution of amphora design has resulted in a classification by type but also a corresponding chronology. In the typology of amphorae, the various designs are classified by name and number. The names often reference the academics and researchers who determined the chronology (Dressel, Pascual, Keay) or the place of manufacture (Etruscan, Gallic). Amphorae first appeared in the West during the eighth century BC. Often painted, engraved or printed marks or inscriptions can be seen on certain parts of an amphora (handle, neck, belly or body). They might provide information on the amphora’s manufacturer, contents, capacity, origin or owner, or indicate a quantity, date, merchant or organization. The most famous of all the typologies was developed by Heinrich Dressel, an eminent epigraphist of the late nineteenth century. He based his system on amphorae found in Rome. Dressel’s ‘synoptic table’ continues to be used as the basis for all subsequent amphora typologies.